Stem Formation
Derivational Processes

I. Affixation

A. Prefixation

1. English

i. write rewrite injure reinjure shoot reshoot

play replay do redo tell retell
read reread move remove start restart
ii. large enlarge dear endear able enable
purple empurple rich enrich bitter embitter
iii. do undo fasten unfasten wrap unwrap

cover uncover latch unlatch lock unlock
tie untie dress undress bind unbind
iv. kind unkind easy uneasy believable unbelievable
gentle ungentle afraid unafraid fit unfit

2. Maricopa

i. a'uly    ‘carry (something long)’ aduuly   ‘hide (something long)’ anak   ‘put (something long) in liquid’
  ch'uly  ‘carry (things)’ chduuly ‘hide (things)’ chnak ‘put (things) in liquid’
  t'uly    ‘carry (something round)’ tduuly    ‘hide (something round)’ tnak    ‘put (something round) in liquid’
ii. puy         ‘die’ tpuy        ‘kill’  
  pom       ‘burn’ tpom       ‘burn (something)’  
  'er           ‘be scared’ t'er           ‘scare’  
  herher   ‘be wrinkled’ therher   ‘wrinkle (something)’  
  hmaaly  ‘be white’ thmaaly  ‘whiten’  
  hpily      ‘be dirty’ thpily      ‘make (something) dirty’  

B. Suffixation

1. English

i. write writer read reader do doer work worker
  sing singer dance dancer drive driver fly flier
ii. child childish man mannish boy boyish mule mulish
  girl girlish woman womanish baby babyish book bookish
iv. truth truthful dread dreadful awe awful joy joyful
  mind mindful help helpful fear fearful hate hateful
v. quick quickly childish childishly true truly angry angrily
  final finally truthful truthfully false falsely real really
  happy happily amazing amazingly right rightly correct correctly
vi. master masterly queen queenly prince princely god godly
  mother motherly daughter daughterly man manly woman womanly

2. Kurdish (Near Eastern)

3. Hanunoo (Philippines) 

 ʔusa   ‘one’  ʔusahi   ‘make it one!’ ʔupat   ‘four’ ʔupati   ‘make it four!’
duwa   ‘two’ duwahi   ‘make it two!’ ʔunum   ‘six’ ʔunumi   ‘make it six!’
tulu   ‘three’ tuluhi   ‘make it three!’    

C. Infixation

1. Bontoc (Philippines)

fikas ‘strong’ fumikas ‘he is becoming strong’  bato ‘stone’  bumato ‘he is becoming stone’
kilad ‘red’ kumilad ‘he is becoming red’  pusi ‘poor’  pumusi ‘he is becoming poor’
bato ‘stone’ bumato ‘he is becoming stone’    

II. Reduplication

    A. Complete

1. Nez Perce (Northwest American Indian)

2. Tagalog

bahay ‘house’ bahaybahayan ‘playhouse’
hari ‘king’ hariharian ‘pretend king’
ina ‘mother’ inainahan ‘pretend mother’
baru ‘clothes’ barubaruan ‘doll clothes’
anak ‘child’ anakanakan ‘adopted child’

    B. Partial

1. Tzeltal (Mayan language, Chiapas, Mexico)

nit ‘to push’ nititan ‘to push rapidly’
has ‘to touch’ hasasan ‘to touch rapidly’
puj ‘to crush’ pujujan ‘to crush rapidly’ 

III. Internal Modification (including ablaut)

1. English

 song/sing     tooth/teethe     breath/breathe    house (n)/house (v)

2. Latin

teg-     ‘cover’ toga        ‘robe’
pend-  ‘weigh’ pondus  ‘weight’
da-       ‘give’ donum   ‘gift’

IV. Zero-derivation or Functional Shift Changing the part of speech of a stem without changing its form
       dance    laugh    run    buy    steal    position    contact    contrast

V. Compounding  Forming a new stem by putting together two or more existing stems
       blackbird    freeway    airconditioner    mother-in-law

VI. Acronym and Initialism Forming stems by taking the initial sounds or letters of the words of a phrase and uniting them into a new combination, pronounced as letters (initialisms) or as word-like sequences (acronyms)

    NATO < North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    laser < light amplification through the stimulated emission of radiation
    USA < United States of America
    WSU < Washington State University
    Wazzu < Washington State University

VII. Blending Combining parts of two stems
    breakfast + lunch = brunch 
    smoke + fog = smog 
    chuckle + snort = 

VIII. Borrowing Absorbing foreign words into the language
    taco    cashmere    elite    jihad

IX. Clipping Shortening stems by deleting one or more syllables from the periphery of the word
    exam < examination                                 
    dorm < dormitory
    taxicab < taxi cab < taximeter cabriolet

X. Coinage Creating words or stems without any preexisting basis for the creation
    pooch     Kodak     google     blurb

XI. Back Formation Forming new stems on the basis of analogy from apparently complex words
    creation:create::donation:X      X=donate 
    revision:revise::television:X     X = televise

XII. Morphological Misanalyis (Folk Etymology)  Introducing new morphemes on the basis of a historically incorrect internal analysis of words
    -burger (<hamburger < Hamburger steak)  and so...cheeseburger/pizzaburger/steakburger/baconburger
    -(a)holic (<alcoholic (alcohol + ic)) and so...workaholic/sugarholic